+ Petrol engines
+ Engine lubrication system
+ Engine cooling system
+ System of ignition
+ Power supply system, carburetor, system of injection of fuel
+ Diesel engine
+ System of production of the fulfilled gases
+ Manual transmission
+ Automatic transmission
+ Suspension bracket and system of steering
+ Brake system
+ Wheels and tires, body, coloring of the car, care of the car
- System of electric equipment
Search of malfunctions of electric system
Check of the switch on a current transmission
Check of the relay
Check of the motor of a screen wiper
Verification of indexes of turn
Check of stoplights
Check of a heater of back glass
Separation and connection of cable plugs
Arrangement of safety locks
Replacement of safety locks
Removal and installation of the battery
Check of the battery
The battery is discharged in itself
Storage of the battery
Security measures for the generator of alternating current
Check of tension of the generator
Removal and installation of the generator
Dismantling generator/replacement of coal brushes
Removal and installation of a starter
Check/replacement of the traction relay of a starter
+ Heater, system of lighting, devices
+ Governing bodies and methods of operation
+ Electric circuits
System of electric equipment
Search of malfunctions of electric system
At malfunction in electric system it is very important to run for systematic troubleshooting. It belongs both to the fused lamp, and to an idle electric motor.
The first step is always check of a safety lock if the electric contour is protected. The arrangement of safety locks is given in the table on a cover of a box of safety locks, see also Section Replacement of Safety Locks.
If necessary to replace a faulty safety lock, and after inclusion of the consumer of the electric power to check whether the safety lock fused again. In this case it is necessary to find and eliminate at first malfunction, as a rule, is about short circuit. It means what in some place, can be also in the device, the weight and plus are connected with each other. Second step: If the lamp does not burn or does not work at a serviceable safety lock, it is necessary to check giving of tension.
Check of lamps
- To remove and examine a lamp. If thread of an incandescence fused or fastening of a glass flask in a socle weakened, to replace a lamp.
- For definition of serviceability of a lamp arrive as follows: One plus wire and one wire of weight connect directly to poles of the battery and connect them to a lamp. At the same time it is not important how wires are connected to a lamp. If the lamp does not burn, to replace a lamp.
It is necessary to be convinced that contacts on a lamp and in the boss not of a korrodirovanna. If necessary to smooth out contacts by an emery paper.
- If the lamp is serviceable, to insert a lamp and to include it. If the lamp does not burn, to check giving of tension the indicator. For this purpose to put tension indicator to weight. It means: One cable of the indicator has to be connected to the reliable place of weight on the engine (naked metal) or is directly connected to a pole of mass of the battery. To connect other plus probe of the indicator either to the plug, or to a cable. If the indicator lights up, and the lamp all the same does not burn, giving of weight on a lamp is broken. For check to connect an auxiliary wire of weight to the mass of the boss of a lamp. The lamp has to light up.
There are lamps which have only a conducting wire, for example, parking light, internal lighting. These lamps are connected via the case directly to the mass of the car.
- If on a conducting cable of a lamp there is no tension, i.e. the indicator does not light up, it is very probable that the switch is faulty. To check the switch for a current transmission.
Check of electric motors
- More and more functions of comfort are performed in the car by small electric motors. It belongs, for example, to window regulators, the hatch, the electric central locking device or the electric drive of the antenna.
- Each motor if necessary turns on by means of the switch, in most cases a hand. At the electric antenna control is exercised automatically of the radio receiver.
- To check a safety lock of the corresponding electric motor, if necessary to replace.
Ha power windows and the central locking device before repeated inclusion needs to remove the overload cause. It can be frosting of glasses or locks, and also pollution of guides of glass.
- If the new safety lock fuses at once, so there is a short circuit.
- To define whether there is a malfunction in the motor, to connect to it 2 auxiliary cables (diameter of 2 mm) directly from the battery. A plus cable to a plus pole, a weight cable to a pole of mass of an electric motor. In case of doubt it is necessary to determine an arrangement of poles by the scheme. For this purpose the electric motor has to be removed. All electric motors in the car eat from onboard network (12 — 14 V). If the motor works now normally, malfunction is concluded in conducting.
Too slow work or operation of the motor with interruptions can be a sign of wear of coal brushes. In this case to replace brushes.
- If the motor works, to determine by the scheme on what wires on it tension moves if the switch is switched on or ignition is previously included.
- To check a conducting wire on an electric motor by means of the indicator. As in electric motors big current proceeds, it is possible to use the former indicator with the glow lamp. The indicator has sharp probes which can be thrust in a cable. Thus it is possible to check tension most simply. Motors, for example, the motors of window regulators rotating to the right and to the left have two plus poles.
- If tension is not put to the motor, so conducting is faulty. To find and eliminate malfunction according to the scheme. Electric motors because of the need for big current, as a rule, have additional relays of inclusion. Check see in the Head Snyatiye and installation of the motor of a forward screen wiper.
- If malfunction is not found, to check the switch.
- If the cable is faulty, it is more expedient to lay new as it is very difficult to find the place of break of a cable.