since 1985 release
Repair and operation of the car
+ Petrol engines
- Engine lubrication system
Check of pressure of oil
Check of the sensor of pressure of oil
Removal and installation of the pallet of a case
+ Engine cooling system
+ System of ignition
+ Power supply system, carburetor, system of injection of fuel
+ Diesel engine
+ System of production of the fulfilled gases
+ Manual transmission
+ Automatic transmission
+ Suspension bracket and system of steering
+ Brake system
+ Wheels and tires, body, coloring of the car, care of the car
+ System of electric equipment
+ Heater, system of lighting, devices
+ Governing bodies and methods of operation
+ Electric circuits
Engine lubrication system
Pollution of engine oil
Depending on service conditions engine oils are exposed to the changing influence. Therefore it is very difficult to define impact of various conditions on lubricant. The engines working long time at high turns or with full loading reach high temperature. Under the influence of high temperature and oxygen of air oil begins to be oxidized. Products of oxidation do oil to more dense and can be postponed on the top part of the piston, in grooves of piston rings and on cores of valves. It can cause formation of a deposit on plates of valves.
Fluidifying of oil on petrol engines
If cylinders receive too enriched mix, the engine cannot develop the maximum power or too cold engine (a city cycle) is constantly operated, the deposit is inevitably formed. The soot, the burned-down oil and other products, the not burned down fuel and condensation of liquid lead to formation of slime, acid and asphalt. Not burned down fuel accumulates on a mirror of cylinders and flows down in a case, at the same time the oil film on cylinders and pistons is washed away. Consequences: insufficient lubricant of a working surface of pistons and fluidifying of oil which reduces lubricant properties of oil depending on amount of the got fuel. At too high fluidifying, perhaps, premature replacement of oil will be required. As in the hot engine of a particle of gasoline evaporate from oil, it is necessary to control oil level, first of all in the winter (it is a lot of cold starts — the increased content of fuel in oil).
Viscosity of engine oil
Viscosity call the liquid resistance to internal displacement of its layers. Depending on temperature each oil is inclined to change of the viscosity. With increase of temperature oil becomes more liquid. Because of it stickiness and durability of an oil film worsens. At cold oil becomes viscous, at the same time the internal resistance to friction increases.
Area viscosity applications/classes
On the cold engine oil has to be rather liquid not to complicate work of a starter and at start to come to all points of lubricant whenever possible quicker. It demands use of engine oil with the viscosity, the smallest image changing at various temperatures. Viscosity of oil has the same value, as internal friction of oil, and SAE 30, SAE 10 etc. is designated on the SAE system (Society of Automotive Engineers), for example. High numbers of SAE on dense, low — on liquid oil. Viscosity does not give an idea of lubricant properties of oil.
It is necessary to apply all-weather oil to MAZDA 323 engines. All-weather oils have that advantage that they can be used both in winter, and in summertime. All-weather oils are based on liquid seasonal oils (for example, 15 W). At the expense of so-called thickeners oil is stabilized in a hot state so for each state necessary lubricant properties are provided. "W" in the SAE system indicates that oil can be used in the winter.
Oils with antifrictional additives (legkokhodny oils)
Legkokhodny oils represent all-weather oils with antifrictional additives so economy of fuel to 2% is possible. Legkokhodny oils have low viscosity (for example, 10 W - 30. For them the unusual basis (synthetic oils) is used. Upon purchase of legkokhodny oil it is necessary to pay attention to that this oil was suitable for MAZDA. As the next classes SAE are blocked, short-term fluctuations of temperature are admissible. It is allowed to mix oils of various classes of viscosity among themselves if it is required to add oil and external temperatures do not correspond to a class of viscosity of the oil which is in the engine. Neither in fuel, nor in oil no additives should be added.
Specification of engine oil
For modern engines use only of HD oils is allowed. HD oils are oils whose lubricant properties are significantly improved due to addition in them various substances. These additives cause stronger protection against corrosion, oxidation, especially lowered tendency to formation of slime in a case, the best viscosity clearing and dissolving properties. The clearing and dissolving additives reduce not only formation of a deposit in the engine, but also have ability to dissolve rainfall and to divide them and other pollution into small particles and to hold in the case pallet in suspension so when replacing oil of pollution merge together with it. Quality of HD oil is designated on classification of API (American Petroleum Institute). The European producers are guided also by this system.
Designation consists of two letters.
The first letter indicates a scope:
The second letter designates quality in alphabetical order.
Have the highest quality according to the API specification of SG oil for petrol engines and SE for diesels.
Speaking about an oil consumption in the internal combustion engine, that amount of oil which is spent owing to combustion process means. It is not necessary to confuse an oil consumption to the loss of oil happening because of leakage of the pallet of a case, a cover of a head of cylinders etc. at all. The normal consumption of oil arises because of combustion of a small amount in cylinders, because of withdrawal of the remains of combustion and particles of products of wear. Oil wears out because of high temperatures and the high pressure arising in the engine. External factors, a driving manner, and also accuracy of production of details also exert a great influence on an oil consumption. The consumption of oil can make at most 1,0 l on 1000 km.
On reaching a boundary mark oil has to be added surely.